High milk consumption in adults is associated with increased mortality and, among women, increased fracture risk, according to an observational study in BMJ.
Women who reported drinking 3 or more glasses of milk daily had a near doubling of risk for total mortality relative to those who drank less than a glass daily. Men drinking 3 or more glasses daily had a smaller, but still significant, increase in mortality.
Among women, high milk consumption was also associated with increased risk for any fracture and hip fracture.
The authors note that D-galactose, found in milk, has been shown to induce oxidative stress damage and chronic inflammation in animals, and such changes have been associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone loss, and sarcopenia in humans. Nonetheless, the authors caution that their findings “merit independent replication before they can be used for dietary recommendations.”